Chiasmus can be defined most simply as an inverted type of parallelism. Two lines of poetry are said to be parallel if the component elements of one line correspond directly to those of the other in a one-to-one relationship.
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There are numerous examples of direct parallelism in Proverbs, e. If the second line of a parallelism is inverted, that is to say, if its last element is placed first and the first, last, then a chiasm is created, as, for example, in the following verse:. Neither are your ways my ways, saith the Lord.
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Isaiah And he that loseth his life for my sake shall find it. Matthew As a literary device, chiasmus has proved durable and useful because of its many applications. For example, Heraclitus, one of the earliest Greek philosophers, used chiasmus to accentuate his notion of eternal flux and opposition:. Several centuries later, Cicero effectively used chiastic lines as a rhetorical device for placing emphasis:. Some English authors, perhaps influenced by their training in the classics, used chiasmus in poetry.
Even in our modern nursery rhymes and maxims, the natural rhythm and immediate appeal of chiastic lines is apparent. The reader, however, will notice that all these chiasms contain only two elements, whose order is then reversed. This is significant in differentiating the relatively simple chiasmus known for some time in the West from the much more complex chiasmus characteristic of Hebrew and other such ancient languages. Whereas in languages such as Greek, Latin, and English, chiasms are most often composed of two elements, in Hebrew there appears to be no limit to the number of terms or ideas that may commonly be employed.
A chiasm may be expanded to include any number of terms written first in one order and then exactly in the reverse order, i. Such structures might be several verses or even several chapters long. For thou hast smitten.
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All my enemies. On the cheek-bone. The teeth. Of the wicked. Thou hast broken. For thy light is come,. And the glory. Of Yahweh. For behold, dimness shall cover the earth. And gross darkness the peoples. But upon thee will arise. And his glory shall upon thee be seen. And nations shall come to thy light. There are several good reasons why a literary form of this peculiar type was particularly attractive to the ancient Hebrews. First, chiasms are easy to memorize. The Hebrew tradition, unlike the written Greek tradition, was oral.
Not only were manuscripts and scrolls scarce, but there were also few who could read them. Therefore, the tales of early Israel and the songs of her prophets were handed down through generations by word of mouth, and long passages of the Torah were committed to memory. Second, chiasmus was simply a vogue. Just as sixteenth-century English poets were fond of the sonnet, chiasmus seems to have been preferred by many of the ancient Hebrew writers of the Old Testament. Third, the form can be very pleasing aesthetically because of its vast potential to coordinate abrupt juxtapositions within a single unified literary system while focusing simultaneously on a point of central concern.
Furthermore, and perhaps most significantly, chiasmus afforded a seriously needed element of internal organization in ancient writing, which did not have paragraphs, punctuation, capitalization, and other such synthetic devices to demarcate the conclusion of one idea and the commencement of the next.
Ancient texts were written in a steady stream of letters from the beginning of a book to the end, sometimes even without spaces between the words. Chiastic or other parallel forms, therefore, could serve an important organizational function by indicating units of thought or sections of text. Finally, ancient religious literature frequently served liturgical purposes, and the structure of chiastic writing may have made it suitable for use in certain ritual settings requiring alternate recitations. Chiasmus remained a common literary device in much of ancient literature and was one which was expressly recognized, for example, by the scholiasts in Alexandria in the second century B.
But the form, especially in its more elaborate manifestations, appears to have fallen into disuse and obscurity in the first centuries after Christ, when many ancient institutions from Greek, Roman, Jewish, and other civilizations underwent great change, if not destruction, and when more familiar modern manners of writing began to develop. The rediscovery of chiasmus in the Bible can be credited to three theologians of the nineteenth century: Robert Lowth, John Jebb, and John Forbes.
Lowth, the Bishop of London, and Jebb, the Bishop of Limerick, both wrote page volumes describing Hebraisms in the holy scriptures. Since then numerous other writers have utilized a knowledge of the form in critical studies of the holy scriptures, indicating that it has been recognized as genuine and significant. As the Old Testament represents the earliest extant Hebrew writings, it is the best evidence of the antiquity and general nature of chiasmus as developed by the Hebrews. Based on his detailed modern analysis of biblical chiasmus, Nils Lund has formulated seven rules of chiastic passages, three of which are most interesting for this study.
The third notes that identical ideas will often be distributed so as to occur at the beginning, middle, and end of a chiasm, but nowhere else. The seventh claims that there is often a mixture of directly parallel and inverted parallel lines in the same unit.
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These characteristics are readily apparent in the following biblical passages:. And cattle,. And beasts,. And every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth,. And every man:. All in whose nostrils was the breath of the spirit of life. Of all that was on the dry land.
And was destroyed. Every living thing. That was upon the face of the ground. Both man,.
And creeping things,. And beasts ,.
Chiasmus in the Book of Mormon
And they were destroyed from the earth. Genesis — Seek ye me, and ye shall live. Nor enter into Gilgal,. And pass not to Beer-sheba:. For Gilgal shall shall surely go into captivity,.
And Bethel shall come to naught. Seek Yahweh, and ye shall live. Amos b—6a. Do ye indeed, O gods, speak righteousness? Do ye judge uprightly, O ye sons of men? They go astray as soon as they are born, speaking lies. Their poison is like the poison of a serpent. Like the deaf adder that stoppeth her ear. Which hearkeneth not to the voice of charmers,.
The most cunning binder of spells.